Christy Boscardin, PhD


Christy Boscardin, PhD is Professor in the Department of Medicine and Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, and the Director of Student Assessment in the School of Medicine. Her research interest include medical education with focus on assessment, data science, implementation science, high value care and access to quality health care. Dr. Boscardin received her BA from UC Berkeley, her MA from Stanford University, and PhD in research methodology with emphasis on applied statistics and advanced quantitative methods from UCLA. She is currently the deputy editor for Teaching and Learning in Medicine and statistical editor for Perspectives on Medical Education.
2018 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
  1. Sinskey JL, Chang JM, Thornton KC, Boscardin CK, Sullivan KR. Conflict Management Education for Anesthesiology Residents: Bridging the Gap in Interpersonal and Communication Skills Competency. A&A practice 2021. PMID: 34606483

  2. Mills LM, Boscardin C, Joyce EA, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Emotion in remediation: A scoping review of the medical education literature. Medical education 2021. PMID: 34355413

  3. Olmos AV, Steen S, Boscardin CK, Chang JM, Manahan G, Little AR, Lee MC, Liu LL. Increasing the use of multimodal analgesia during adult surgery in a tertiary academic anaesthesia department. BMJ open quality 2021. PMID: 34281910

  4. Lebares CC, Greenberg AL, Shui A, Boscardin C, van der Schaaf M. Flourishing as a Measure of Global Well-being in First Year Residents: A Pilot Longitudinal Cohort Study. Journal of medical education and curricular development 2021. PMID: 34104793

  5. Amy Ransohoff, Christy Boscardin, Karen E Hauer, Susan Wlodarczyk. Rethinking How to Introduce the Learning Sciences: a Near-Peer Approach Medical Science Educator 2021. PMID:

  6. Ferschl MB, Boscardin C, Ravula N, Infosino A. Implementation and Assessment of a Visiting Scholar Exchange Program in Pediatric Anesthesiology to Promote Junior Faculty and Fellow Professional Development. The journal of education in perioperative medicine : JEPM 2021. PMID: 34104675

  7. Thornton KC, Sinskey JL, Boscardin CK, Sullivan KR. Design and Implementation of an Innovative, Longitudinal Wellness Curriculum in an Anesthesiology Residency Program. A&A practice 2021. PMID: 33560640

  8. Yuan N, Boscardin C, Lisha NE, Dudley RA, Lin GA. Is Better Patient Knowledge Associated with Different Treatment Preferences? A Survey of Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease. Patient preference and adherence 2021. PMID: 33531798

  9. Wlodarczyk S, Muller-Juge V, Hauer KE, Tong MS, Ransohoff A, Boscardin C. Assessment to Optimize Learning Strategies: a Qualitative Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions. Teaching and learning in medicine 2021. PMID: 33439035

  10. Ransohoff A, Boscardin C, Hauer KE, Wlodarczyk S. Rethinking How to Introduce the Learning Sciences: a Near-Peer Approach. Medical Science Educator 2020. PMID: 34457862

  11. Tolsgaard MG, Boscardin CK, Park YS, Cuddy MM, Sebok-Syer SS. The role of data science and machine learning in Health Professions Education: practical applications, theoretical contributions, and epistemic beliefs. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2020. PMID: 33141345

  12. O'Brien BC, Teherani A, Boscardin CK, O'Sullivan PS. Pause, Persist, Pivot: Key Decisions Health Professions Education Researchers Must Make About Conducting Studies During Extreme Events. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2020. PMID: 32496292

  13. Boscardin CK, Earnest G, Hauer KE. Predicting Performance on Clerkship Examinations and USMLE Step 1: What Is the Value of Open-Ended Question Examination? Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2020. PMID: 32769460

  14. Bowen JL, Chiovaro J, O'Brien BC, Boscardin CK, Irby DM, Ten Cate O. Exploring current physicians' failure to communicate clinical feedback back to transferring physicians after transitions of patient care responsibility: A mixed methods study. Perspectives on medical education 2020. PMID: 32514883

  15. Rosenbluth G, Tong MS, Condor Montes SY, Boscardin C. Trainee and Program Director Perspectives on Meaningful Patient Attribution and Clinical Outcomes Data. Journal of graduate medical education 2020. PMID: 32595849

  16. Young JS, Chan AK, Viner JA, Sankaran S, Chan AY, Imershein S, Meary-Miller A, Theodosopoulos PV, Jacques L, Aghi MK, Chang EF, Hervey-Jumper SL, Ward T, Gibson L, Ward MM, Sanftner P, Wong S, Amara D, Magill ST, Osorio JA, Venkatesh B, Gonzales R, Lau C, Boscardin C, Wang M, Berry K, McCullagh L, Reid M, Reels K, Nedkov S, Berger MS, McDermott MW. A Safe Transitions Pathway for post-craniotomy neurological surgery patients: high-value care that bypasses the intensive care unit. Journal of neurosurgery 2020. PMID: 32470928

  17. Sewell JL, Bowen JL, Cate OT, O'Sullivan PS, Shah B, Boscardin CK. Learning Challenges, Teaching Strategies, and Cognitive Load: Insights From the Experience of Seasoned Endoscopy Teachers. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2020. PMID: 31425188

  18. Andler C, Daya S, Kowalek K, Boscardin C, van Schaik SM. E-ASSESS: Creating an EPA Assessment Tool for Structured Simulated Emergency Scenarios. Journal of graduate medical education 2020. PMID: 32322347

  19. Harbell MW, Li D, Boscardin C, Pierluissi E, Hauer KE. Teaching Systems Improvement to Early Medical Students: Strategies and Lessons Learned. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2020. PMID: 31335811

  20. Borno HT, Bakke BM, Kaplan C, Hebig-Prophet A, Chao J, Kim YJ, Yeager J, Cinar P, Small E, Boscardin C, Gonzales R. A step towards equitable clinical trial recruitment: a protocol for the development and preliminary testing of an online prostate cancer health information and clinical trial matching tool. Pilot and feasibility studies 2019. PMID: 31720002

  21. Bowen JL, Boscardin CK, Chiovaro J, Ten Cate O, Regehr G, Irby DM, O'Brien BC. A view from the sender side of feedback: anticipated receptivity to clinical feedback when changing prior physicians' clinical decisions-a mixed methods study. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2019. PMID: 31552531

  22. Hauer KE, Boscardin C, Brenner JM, van Schaik SM, Papp KK. Twelve tips for assessing medical knowledge with open-ended questions: Designing constructed response examinations in medical education. Medical teacher 2019. PMID: 31282798

  23. Sewell JL, Young JQ, Boscardin CK, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Trainee perception of cognitive load during observed faculty staff teaching of procedural skills. Medical education 2019. PMID: 31179594

  24. Brondfield S, Boscardin C, Strewler G, Hyland K, Oakes SA, Nishimura H, Crawford J, Hauer KE. A Medical Student Inquiry Behavior Assessment Tool: Development and Validity Evidence. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2019. PMID: 30431452

  25. Hauer KE, Iverson N, Quach A, Yuan P, Kaner S, Boscardin C. Fostering medical students' lifelong learning skills with a dashboard, coaching and learning planning. Perspectives on medical education 2018. PMID: 30187391

  26. Oza SK, van Schaik S, Boscardin CK, Pierce R, Miao E, Lockspeiser T, Tad-Y D, Aagaard E, Kuo AK. Leadership Observation and Feedback Tool: A Novel Instrument for Assessment of Clinical Leadership Skills. Journal of graduate medical education 2018. PMID: 30386485

  27. Henry D, Vesel T, Boscardin C, van Schaik S. Motivation for feedback-seeking among pediatric residents: a mixed methods study. BMC medical education 2018. PMID: 29921262

  28. Hauer KE, O'Sullivan PS, Fitzhenry K, Boscardin C. Translating Theory Into Practice: Implementing a Program of Assessment. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2018. PMID: 29116979

  29. Shin J, Tabatabai D, Boscardin C, Ferrone M, Brock T. Integration of a Community Pharmacy Simulation Program into
    a Therapeutics Course
    American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2018. PMID:

  30. Zygourakis CC, Liu CY, Yoon S, Moriates C, Boscardin C, Dudley RA, Lawton MT, Theodosopoulos P, Berger MS, Gonzales R. Analysis of Cost Variation in Craniotomy for Tumor Using 2 National Databases. Neurosurgery 2017. PMID: 28402457

  31. Boscardin C, Fergus KB, Hellevig B, Hauer KE. Twelve tips to promote successful development of a learner performance dashboard within a medical education program. Medical teacher 2017. PMID: 29117744

  32. Sewell JL, Boscardin CK, Young JQ, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Learner, Patient, and Supervisor Features Are Associated With Different Types of Cognitive Load During Procedural Skills Training: Implications for Teaching and Instructional Design. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2017. PMID: 28445213

  33. Hauer KE, Nishimura H, Dubon D, Teherani A, Boscardin C. Competency assessment form to improve feedback. The clinical teacher 2017. PMID: 29045060

  34. Feigenbaum DF, Boscardin CK, Frieden IJ, Mathes EFD. Can You See Me Now? Video Supplementation for Pediatric Teledermatology Cases. Pediatric dermatology 2017. PMID: 28770583

  35. Gonzales R, Moriates C, Lau C, Valencia V, Imershein S, Rajkomar A, Prasad P, Boscardin C, Grady D, Johnston S. Caring Wisely: A Program to Support Frontline Clinicians and Staff in Improving Healthcare Delivery and Reducing Costs. Journal of hospital medicine 2017. PMID: 28786434

  36. Rosenbluth G, Burman NJ, Ranji SR, Boscardin CK. Development of a Multi-Domain Assessment Tool for Quality Improvement Projects. Journal of graduate medical education 2017. PMID: 28824761

  37. Zygourakis CC, Liu CY, Wakam G, Moriates C, Boscardin C, Ames CP, Mummaneni PV, Ratliff J, Dudley RA, Gonzales R. Geographic and Hospital Variation in Cost of Lumbar Laminectomy and Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Conditions. Neurosurgery 2017. PMID: 28327960

  38. Gonzales R, Boscardin C, Auerbach A. Communicating Context in Quality Improvement Reports. JAMA internal medicine 2017. PMID: 28395019

  39. Peters H, Holzhausen Y, Boscardin C, Ten Cate O, Chen HC. Twelve tips for the implementation of EPAs for assessment and entrustment decisions. Medical teacher 2017. PMID: 28549405

  40. Miyar ME, Brown M, Vivar KL, Jablon K, Boscardin C, Levy ML, Teng JM, Mathes EF. An Atopic Dermatitis Management Algorithm for Primary Care Providers and Assessment of Its Usefulness as a Clinical Tool. Pediatric dermatology 2017. PMID: 28543716

  41. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Moriates C, Boscardin CK, Catschegn S, Rajkomar A, Bozic KJ, Soo Hoo K, Goldberg AN, Pitts L, Lawton MT, Dudley RA, Gonzales R. Association Between Surgeon Scorecard Use and Operating Room Costs. JAMA surgery 2017. PMID: 27926758

  42. van der Gijp A, Vincken KL, Boscardin C, Webb EM, Ten Cate OTJ, Naeger DM. The Effect of Teaching Search Strategies on Perceptual Performance. Academic radiology 2017. PMID: 28242103

  43. Young JQ, Boscardin CK, van Dijk SM, Abdullah R, Irby DM, Sewell JL, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity. SAGE open medicine 2016. PMID: 28348737

  44. Boscardin CK, Wijnen-Meijer M, Cate OT. Taking Rater Exposure to Trainees Into Account When Explaining Rater Variability. Journal of graduate medical education 2016. PMID: 28018538

  45. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Boscardin C, Nayak RU, Moriates C, Gonzales R, Theodosopoulos P, Lawton MT. Predictors of Variation in Neurosurgical Supply Costs and Outcomes Across 4904 Surgeries at a Single Institution. World neurosurgery 2016. PMID: 27613498

  46. Debarger, A. H., Penuel, W. R., Moorthy, S., Beauvineau, Y., Kennedy, C. A. and Boscardin, C. K.. Investigating Purposeful Science Curriculum Adaptation as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning Sci. Ed 2016. PMID:

  47. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Moriates C, Boscardin C, Catschegn S, Goldberg A, Bozic K, Hoo KS, Wustrack R, Pitts LH, Dudley A, Gonzales R, Lawton MT. 152 A Prospective Controlled Trial of the Effect of Surgeon Cost Scorecards on Operating Room Surgical Cost Reduction. Neurosurgery 2016. PMID: 27399431

  48. Sewell JL, Boscardin CK, Young JQ, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Measuring cognitive load during procedural skills training with colonoscopy as an exemplar. Medical education 2016. PMID: 27170086

  49. Zygourakis CC, Yoon S, Valencia V, Boscardin C, Moriates C, Gonzales R, Lawton MT. Operating room waste: disposable supply utilization in neurosurgical procedures. Journal of neurosurgery 2016. PMID: 27153160

  50. Hauer KE, Cate OT, Boscardin CK, Iobst W, Holmboe ES, Chesluk B, Baron RB, O'Sullivan PS. Ensuring Resident Competence: A Narrative Review of the Literature on Group Decision Making to Inform the Work of Clinical Competency Committees. Journal of graduate medical education 2016. PMID: 27168881

  51. Cullen EB, Hauer KE, Eisenstein L, Boscardin CK, Schroeder SA. Southern Medical Students' Views on Medicaid Expansion. JAMA internal medicine 2016. PMID: 26642382

  52. Chen HC, ten Cate O, O'Sullivan P, Boscardin C, Eidson-Ton WS, Basaviah P, Woehrle T, Teherani A. Students' goal orientations, perceptions of early clinical experiences and learning outcomes. Medical education 2016. PMID: 26812999

  53. Ackerman SL, Boscardin C, Karliner L, Handley MA, Cheng S, Gaither TW, Hagey J, Hennein L, Malik F, Shaw B, Trinidad N, Zahner G, Gonzales R. The Action Research Program: Experiential Learning in Systems-Based Practice for First-Year Medical Students. Teaching and learning in medicine 2016. PMID: 27064720

  54. Boscardin CK. Reducing Implicit Bias Through Curricular Interventions. Journal of general internal medicine 2015. PMID: 26311199

  55. Boscardin CK, Gonzales R, Bradley KL, Raven MC. Predicting cost of care using self-reported health status data. BMC health services research 2015. PMID: 26399319

  56. Hauer KE, Boscardin C, Fulton TB, Lucey C, Oza S, Teherani A. Using a Curricular Vision to Define Entrustable Professional Activities for Medical Student Assessment. Journal of general internal medicine 2015. PMID: 26173516

  57. Zygourakis CC, Valencia V, Moriates C, Catschegn S, Afshar A, Bozic K, Hoo KS, Goldberg A, Boscardin C, Gonzales R, Pitts LH, Lawton MT.. OR Score: Reducing Operating Room Costs Through a Hospital-Wide Price Transparency Initiative Neurosurgery 2015. PMID:

  58. Hauer KE, Chesluk B, Iobst W, Holmboe E, Baron RB, Boscardin CK, Cate OT, O'Sullivan PS. Reviewing residents' competence: a qualitative study of the role of clinical competency committees in performance assessment. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2015. PMID: 25901876

  59. Ho CK, Boscardin CK, Gleason N, Collado D, Terdiman J, Terrault NA, Gonzales R. Optimizing the pre-referral workup for gastroenterology and hepatology specialty care: consensus using the Delphi method. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice 2015. PMID: 26223584

  60. Kogan JR, Lapin J, Aagaard E, Boscardin C, Aiyer MK, Cayea D, Cifu A, Diemer G, Durning S, Elnicki M, Fazio SB, Khan AR, Lang VJ, Mintz M, Nixon LJ, Paauw D, Torre DM, Hauer KE. The effect of resident duty-hours restrictions on internal medicine clerkship experiences: surveys of medical students and clerkship directors. Teaching and learning in medicine 2015. PMID: 25584470

  61. Boscardin CK, Grbic D, Grumbach K, O'Sullivan P. Educational and individual factors associated with positive change in and reaffirmation of medical students' intention to practice in underserved areas. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2014. PMID: 25250749

  62. Oza SK, Boscardin CK, Wamsley M, Sznewajs A, May W, Nevins A, Srinivasan M, E Hauer K. Assessing 3rd year medical students' interprofessional collaborative practice behaviors during a standardized patient encounter: A multi-institutional, cross-sectional study. Medical teacher 2014. PMID: 25313933

  63. Feigenbaum DF, Boscardin CK, Frieden IJ, Mathes EF. What should primary care providers know about pediatric skin conditions? A modified Delphi technique for curriculum development. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2014. PMID: 25087213

  64. Mathes EF, Frieden IJ, Cho CS, Boscardin CK. Randomized controlled trial of spaced education for pediatric residency education. Journal of graduate medical education 2014. PMID: 24949130

  65. Burman NJ, Boscardin CK, Van Schaik SM. Career-long learning: relationship between cognitive and metacognitive skills. Medical teacher 2014. PMID: 24796358

  66. Alegría DA, Boscardin C, Poncelet A, Mayfield C, Wamsley M. Using tablets to support self-regulated learning in a longitudinal integrated clerkship. Medical education online 2014. PMID: 24646438

  67. Eng JA, Hunter CJ, Handley MA, Boscardin CK, Gonzales R, Ackerman SL. Patient attitudes about specialty follow-up care by telephone. The American journal of managed care 2014. PMID: 24738534

  68. Hauer KE, Ten Cate O, Boscardin C, Irby DM, Iobst W, O'Sullivan PS. Understanding trust as an essential element of trainee supervision and learning in the workplace. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2013. PMID: 23892689

  69. Mookherjee S, Chang A, Boscardin CK, Hauer KE. How to develop a competency-based examination blueprint for longitudinal standardized patient clinical skills assessments. Medical teacher 2013. PMID: 23848440

  70. Curtis DA, Lind SL, Boscardin CK, Dellinges M. Does student confidence on multiple-choice question assessments provide useful information? Medical education 2013. PMID: 23662875

  71. Cipriano SD, Dybbro E, Boscardin CK, Shinkai K, Berger TG. Online learning in a dermatology clerkship: piloting the new American Academy of Dermatology Medical Student Core Curriculum. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2013. PMID: 23683728

  72. Boscardin CK, Gonzales R. The impact of demographic characteristics on nonresponse in an ambulatory patient satisfaction survey. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety 2013. PMID: 23516762

  73. Wijnen-Meijer M, Van der Schaaf M, Booij E, Harendza S, Boscardin C, Van Wijngaarden J, Ten Cate TJ. An argument-based approach to the validation of UHTRUST: can we measure how recent graduates can be trusted with unfamiliar tasks? Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2013. PMID: 23400369

  74. Pape,S., Irving, K.E., Owens, D.T., Boscardin, C.K., Sanalan, V.H., Abrahamson, A.L., Kaya, S., Shin, H.S., & Silver, D.. Classroom connectivity in Algebra I classrooms: results of a
    randomized control trial
    Effective Education 2013. PMID:

  75. Boscardin C, Penuel W. Exploring benefits of audience-response systems on learning: a review of the literature. Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry 2012. PMID: 22983474

  76. Richter Lagha RA, Boscardin CK, May W, Fung CC. A comparison of two standard-setting approaches in high-stakes clinical performance assessment using generalizability theory. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2012. PMID: 22722349

  77. Lee CA, Chang A, Chou CL, Boscardin C, Hauer KE. Standardized patient-narrated web-based learning modules improve students' communication skills on a high-stakes clinical skills examination. Journal of general internal medicine 2011. PMID: 21769506

  78. Tabas JA, Boscardin C, Jacobsen DM, Steinman MA, Volberding PA, Baron RB. Clinician attitudes about commercial support of continuing medical education: results of a detailed survey. Archives of internal medicine 2011. PMID: 21555662

  79. Boscardin CK. Profiling students for remediation using latent class analysis. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2011. PMID: 21487932

  80. Plant JL, van Schaik SM, Sliwka DC, Boscardin CK, O'Sullivan PS. Validation of a self-efficacy instrument and its relationship to performance of crisis resource management skills. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice 2011. PMID: 21264508

  81. Hauer KE, Fernandez A, Teherani A, Boscardin CK, Saba GW. Assessment of medical students' shared decision-making in standardized patient encounters. Journal of general internal medicine 2010. PMID: 21108048

  82. Hauer KE, Boscardin C, Gesundheit N, Nevins A, Srinivasan M, Fernandez A. Impact of student ethnicity and patient-centredness on communication skills performance. Medical education 2010. PMID: 20636584

  83. Steinman MA, Boscardin CK, Aguayo L, Baron RB. Commercial influence and learner-perceived bias in continuing medical education. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2010. PMID: 20042828

  84. Chen HC, Tan JP, O'Sullivan P, Boscardin C, Li A, Muller J. Impact of an information retrieval and management curriculum on medical student citations. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2009. PMID: 19907382

  85. Chang A, Boscardin C, Chou CL, Loeser H, Hauer KE. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2009. PMID: 19907367

  86. Hauer KE, Durning SJ, Kernan WN, Fagan MJ, Mintz M, O'Sullivan PS, Battistone M, DeFer T, Elnicki M, Harrell H, Reddy S, Boscardin CK, Schwartz MD. Factors associated with medical students' career choices regarding internal medicine. JAMA 2008. PMID: 18780844

  87. Muthen, B., Khoo, S.K., Francis, D., & Boscardin, C.K.. Multilevel modeling: Methodological advances, issues and applications Analysis of reading skills development from kindergarten through first grade: An application of growth mixture modeling to sequential processes. 2002. PMID:

  88. Greenlief, C.L., Litman, C., Hanson, T.L., Rosen, R., Boscardin, C.K., Herman, J., Schneider, S.A., Madden, S., & Jones, B.. American Educational Research Journal Integrating Literacy and Science in Biology: Teaching and Learning Impacts of Reading Apprenticeship Professional Development. . PMID:

  89. Aguirre-Muñoz, Z., Park, J.E., Amabisca, A., & Boscardin, C. K.. Bilingual Research Journal Developing Teacher Capacity for Serving ELLs' Writing Instructional Needs: A Case for Systematic Functional Linguistics. . PMID:

  90. Wu, K.B., Goldschmidt, P., & Boscardin, C. Education Economics International Benchmarking and determinants of mathematics achievement in two Indian states. . PMID:

  91. Boscardin, C. K., & Aguirre-Muñoz, Z. Educational Assessment Journa Relationship between Opportunity to Learn and student performance on English and Algebra assessments. . PMID:

  92. Penuel, W., Boscardin, C.K., Masyn, K., & Crawford, V. Educational Technology Research & Developmen Teaching with student response systems in elementary and secondary education settings: a survey study. . PMID:

  93. Wu, K.B., Goldschmidt, P., & Boscardin, C. (2006).. In M. Lewis and M. Lockheed, eds., Exclusion, Gender and Schooling: Case Studies from the Developing World "Narrowing Gender and Social Gaps in Educational Enrollment and Performance in India". . PMID:

  94. Boscardin, C. K., Muthen, B., & Francis, D.. Journal of Educational Psychology Early Identification of Reading Difficulties using Heterogeneous Developmental Trajectories . PMID:

  95. Aguirre-Muñoz, Z., & Boscardin, C. K. Journal of Latinos and Education The importance of promoting language learning: Implications for opportunity to learn indicator systems. . PMID:

  96. Price, P., Tepperman, J., Iseli, M., Duong, T., Black, M., Wang, S., Boscardin, C., Heritage, M., Pearson, D., Narayanan, S., & Alwan, A.. Speech Communication Assessment of Emerging Reading Skills. . PMID: